What is an ACL and PCL?
The cruciate ligament, also known as the cruciate ligament, is an important stable structure in the knee joint. The stability of the knee joint is maintained by four ligaments, two inner and outer ligaments and two cruciate ligaments. The medial and lateral ligaments are the medial and lateral aspect of the knee joint; the cruciate ligament is inside the knee joint, called the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL).
The anterior cruciate ligament originates from the posterior aspect of the medial aspect of the lateral aspect of the femoral condyle, as it moves forward and downward, as far as the anterior humerus and the anterior horn of the lateral meniscus. It is used to maintain the stability of the anterior and posterior aspect of the knee joint, limit the knee joint overextension, coordinate the joint rotation activity, and limit the internal and external valgus activities. Common causes of tearing of the injury are overextension or abduction of the knee joint, excessive flexion, adduction, rotation, and the like. The ACL tear causes instability of the knee joint, including the anterior humerus, and the anterior cruciate ligament is arched.
The posterior cruciate ligament starts from the posterior part of the lateral aspect of the medial femoral condyle and travels downwards and outwards, ending at the upper end of the posterior humerus between the medial and lateral humeral surfaces of the humerus. It is used to restrict the posterior movement of the upper end of the humerus, over-extension and rotation of the knee joint, and limit the internal and external valgus movement of the knee joint. The posterior cruciate ligament is thicker than the anterior cruciate ligament, and usually undergoes tearing under the vibrations of twisting, impact, falling, and crushing.