What is the orthopedic product and what does it do?
An orthosis is an external device used to change the functional characteristics or structure of the neuromuscular and skeletal systems. It is mainly based on the principle of human biomechanics to effectively improve the abnormal posture of patients. By wearing orthotics, patients can have better stability when walking (such as patients with polio). Previously, patients after fractures were treated with plaster external fixation. Orthotics can effectively replace plaster external fixation, which is comfortable and convenient. The sexuality has been improved, and it is mostly used in the treatment of scoliosis, cerebral palsy and hemiplegia in the prevention and correction of deformities.
What kind of people need to wear orthotics
The use of orthotics is adjuvant therapy for rehabilitation. The abnormal posture of patients can be effectively controlled by wearing. Most of them are used for the treatment of scoliosis in adolescents, rehabilitation treatment of cerebral palsy in children, paraplegia caused by various reasons, and poliovirus. Patients with sequelae of poliomyelitis, patients with hemiplegia caused by various reasons, etc.
Clinical application of an orthosis
1. The use of orthopedic vests in patients with scoliosis——the preventive and corrective effects of orthotics
Scoliosis is caused by various causes of non-physiological curvature of the spine. The prevalence of scoliosis in China is about 4.5% -6%. The incidence of adolescents aged 10-15 accounts for about the total number of patients. 80% of girls with scoliosis account for about 80% of all scoliosis. It has become the third-largest growth killer of teenagers after myopia and mental health. Orthopedic vests are mainly used for the prevention and correction of scoliosis through the principle of human biomechanics.
The effects of scoliosis on children are profound and mainly manifested in the following aspects:
1. Affecting cardiopulmonary health. Scoliosis occurs in those with severe thoracolumbar curvature, which can lead to thoracic rotation deformity and a decrease in thoracic volume. It affects cardiopulmonary development and causes decreased endurance of activity and palpitation and shortness of breath.
2. Pain Back pain, limb pain, and decreased workability.
3. Many kinds of symptoms are more serious than life-threatening.
Application of orthosis in children with cerebral palsy——preventive and corrective effects of the orthosis
Cerebral palsy refers to non-progressive brain injury caused by various causes in the early stages of development. The clinical manifestations are mainly central dyskinesia and abnormal posture. The so-called early stage of development refers to the period from before birth to one month after birth. This disease is not uncommon. The prevalence in developed countries ranges from 1 ‰ to 4 ‰, and in China, it is around 2 ‰. In some domestic rehabilitation centers for disabled children, about 80% of them are recovering from cerebral palsy. The other 20% are generally children who are injured or disabled due to trauma.
The main clinical types of cerebral palsy in children
(1) Spastic type: the most common, accounting for about 50% to 60% of all cases. It is mainly caused by the cone system, which manifests as flexion of the elbows and wrists of the upper limbs, adduction of the thumb, and fist-like hands. Scissor legs and pointed feet in the adduction cross of the lower limbs;
(2) Hand-foot movement: In addition to hand-foot movement, it can also show torsional spasm or other extrapyramidal involvement symptoms;
(3) Hypotonic muscle type: Maybe due to the involvement of the cone system and the extrapyramidal system at the same time, resulting in soft limbs but tendon reflexes;
(4) Tonicity: systemic muscle tone significantly increases stiffness and damage to the extrapyramidal system;
(5) Ataxia type: cerebellar ataxia;
(6) tremor type: mostly quiver related to extrapyramidal system;
This type of small patients is mainly manifested as motor dysfunction because of increased muscle tension in the lower limbs and poor muscle strength, manifested as toe toes when the lower limbs stand, and cross-leg scissors gait when walking. More than% are wearing orthotics for rehabilitation.
3. Application of orthosis in paraplegic patients——stability and support of orthosis
Paraplegia is due to non-traumatic or traumatic spinal cord injury (referring to the thoracic, lumbar or iliac spinal cord). Corresponding changes in various motor, sensory and sphincter dysfunctions, abnormal muscle tone, and pathological reflexes appear in the corresponding segments of the spinal cord. To make patients lose some or all of their ability to move, to take care of themselves, and to work.
Common complications of paraplegia
1. Pressure ulcers: Patients with paraplegia lie in bed for a long time, the skin consciousness is lost, and the skin between the bone protuberance and the mattress is pressed for a long time, which is prone to necrosis and pressure ulcers.
2. Respiratory failure and respiratory infections.
3. Infections and stones in the urogenital tract.
4. Osteoporotic complications: osteoporosis and heterotopic ossification.
5.Deep Vein Thrombosis
6. Temperature disorders and orthostatic hypotension are common in cervical spinal cord injuries.
In order to better improve the quality of life of patients and effectively reduce the occurrence of complications (urinary infections, bedsores), patients can be installed with a paraplegic orthosis to help patients stand and walk.
Application of orthoses in the sequelae of polio—stability, and support of orthoses
Poliomyelitis is an acute infectious disease caused by poliovirus which seriously endangers children's health. The virus mainly invades motor nerve cells of the central nervous system, with motor neuron damage mainly in the anterior horn of the spinal cord. Patients are mostly children between 1 and 6 years old, especially infants between 6 months and 3 years old, so it is also called polio.
Common unilateral or bilateral lower extremity paralysis accompanied by a shortening of the limbs, joint deformation, etc., limp or loss of walking ability, severe illness can also affect the upper limbs and trunk, waist weakness and spinal curvature. Common symptoms: hip flexion deformity, quadriceps paralysis, knee flexion, horseshoe foot, unequal leg length, scoliosis, etc .:
Application of orthosis in patients with hemiplegia——the prevention and correction of deformity and the role of fixation and support of orthosis
Hemiplegia, also known as hemiplegia, is a group of symptoms or signs that are mainly caused by brain dysfunction of one side of the upper and lower limbs caused by brain damage. , Aphasia, aphasia, apraxia, and visual field defects. Although patients with mild hemiplegia can still move, they often flex their upper limbs, straighten their lower limbs, and paralyzed lower limbs take a half-circle step. This special walking posture is called hemiplegia gait. Severe cases often cannot stay in bed and lose their ability to live. According to the degree of hemiplegia, it can be divided into paresis, incomplete paralysis, and total paralysis.
In order to effectively improve the hemiplegic gait of the patient while walking, and the basket position of the upper limbs, the patient can be corrected by orthotics to make walking easier for patients with hemiplegia. The main types of hemiplegia orthotics are as follows:
Clinical application of finished orthotics
(1) Cervical collar Used for cervical spinal cord injury and external fixation after neck surgery, easy to put on and take off!
(2) Forearm sling Shoulder abduction orthosis is mainly used for shoulder dislocation and fixed support and protection after shoulder joint surgery.
(3) Forearm orthosis, wrist orthosis, hand orthosis, mainly used to relieve forearm, wrist and finger injuries.
(4) The elastic waist is mainly used to relieve the discomfort and pain of the waist. It is mainly found in lumbar disc herniation and lumbar muscle strain.
(5) Hip flexion orthosis is mainly used for conservative treatment of congenital hip dislocation in infants and young children.
(6) Injury of anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments of knee orthosis; injury of medial and lateral collateral ligaments; knee instability caused by any reason; knee osteoarthritis; knee trauma and knee bone injury Bone and joint pain.
(7) Orthopedic insoles with flat feet, high arched feet, and arch dysplasia; degenerative plantar lesions of the elderly or degradation of fat pads; plantar pain caused by various reasons; archers and transverse arches need supporters and ligament damage 5. Heel discomfort caused by prolonged exercise; plantar spurs, osteopenia, corneal pain, foot pain, etc.